Mille e non più mille... ma le popolazioni a cavallo dell'anno mille, quanto credevano ad una brusca fine del proprio mondo medievale? Non è che forse questa “fine dei tempi” sia stata costruita a tavolino in tempi successivi a quelli del fatidico passaggio di millennio?
The great reigns of the crusades are on the edge of collapsing. In the beginning of A.D. 1200, political problems arose internally and conflicts with the papacy pushed the importance of the Holy Land into the background. However, the arrival of a new and young French king, Louis IX, whose religious fervor was beyond that of the other sovereigns of his time, changed the situation. The Muslim army found itself again confronted with the crusaders.
Pope Innocent III, during the course of his papacy (1198-1216), gave a great impulse to the movement of the crusades, but this had no effect on the holy land. The crusaders conquered the capital of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople, and founded a new empire; however, the never reached Jerusalem.