Pope Urbano raised an appeal in 1095 that significantly changed European medieval history. The mandate was to reconquer Jerusalem and the Holy Sepulchre, which for centuries had been in the hands of the Muslims. During the 12th century, Islamic leaders fought to extinguish Christian reigns that were founded after the first crusade. They were only partially successful in 1187 under the Kurdish leader Saladin. Jerusalem returned into Islamic hands, but the idea of the crusades was far from extinction.