German-born thinker Theodore Levitt's groundbreaking 1960 article Marketing Myopia established him as a world-famous business figure and led to him being dubbed "the father of modern marketing." At the time he published the piece, marketing did not even exist as a separate business discipline. Recognizing that companies went bust when the market for their products dried up, Levitt set to finding out why. He wrote Marketing Myopia as a manifesto.
Traditionally, managers assumed people were lazy and would not work unless strictly controlled. McGregor, however, believed this form of management to be based on faulty assumptions about human nature, and felt that managers should reflect on their assumptions about what motivates people. He proposed they draw on research in psychology and the other social sciences to create working conditions that allow all employees to realize their full human potential.