Gert Muller is a free-lance journalist's investigator and has been for 20 years in Southern Africa and Britain. He has been researching the history of Africans in the Asia and Biblical history for just as long. He has carried out investigative research for many articles that have appeared in such world-wide publications as West Africa magazine. He has worked with such notable journalists as Anu M'Bantu and such world-renowned historical authors as Robin Walker.
He wrote in the Introduction to this 2014 book, “The point of this volume is to explain, in simple language, the basis of ancestry determination used by forensic anthropologists, with a view to applying this to the ancient skeletal remains from Israel. We shall see whether or not they agree with the conclusions of Volume 1 which was based on Biblical Data. It concluded that the Old Testament Hebrews were Black. We shall do this by reviewing reports on these human remains written by forensic anthropologists.”
He explains, “According to Genesis humanity only spread out over the earth after the Flood. Before this the nine generations after Adam lived in Eden, the area the garden was located. After the first couple were expelled from the garden they lived in this area. The ‘Book of Jasher’ was written by a Jewish rabbi in the medieval period and purports to be the ancient ‘Book of Jasher’ referred to in the Old Testament. It claims that in the days BEFORE Noah God sent a flood to the antediluvian people to warn them of their wicked ways: ‘Jash 2:6 And the lord caused the waters of the river Gihon to overwhelm them…’ The Gihon, as stated in Genesis, was the river that ‘compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia.’ The word ‘earth’ in Hebrew is ‘erets.’ It can mean ‘the whole earth,’ ‘ground,’ ‘region,’ or ‘inhabitants.’ The only way a third of the ‘inhabitants’ of the ‘earth’ could have been killed by Gihon flooding is if all of humanity was imagined to have lived by that river. It they meant a third of the ‘region’ of Eden then it must have been located in the neighborhood of Cush. Either way it makes ALL Biblical figures from Adam to Noah East Africans.” (Pg. 9-10)
He states, “Noah’s children Ham, Shem and Japeth were East Africans. The descendants of Shem moved to West Africa while the descendants of Japeth moved to the vast region of Eurasia. In Eurasia the Black Japhethites turned White. This probably happened by giving birth to White babies, with straight hair, as in the picture below. These babies were not albinos. Although it is rare this still happens amongst Sb-Saharan Africans to this day.” (Pg. 10)
He says, “[Joctan] was the father of the aboriginal people of Arabia who can still be found in parts of central, southern and eastern Arabia speaking South Semitic languages like Mahri and Shahari. They are of obvious Black descent today … with hair resembling that of First Australians. This strongly suggests Joctan, Eber and Shem were supposed to be Black in the mind of the original authors of Genesis… Abraham was descended from Shem and Eber which strongly suggests that he too was Black… His grandson Jacob used stones for pillows suggesting that his hair was thick and Afro enough to form a comfortable cushion between his scalp and the rocks. Jacob’s son, joseph, was mistaken for an Egyptian (African)… Jacob’s distant descendant was Moses who was also mistaken for an Egyptian in Midian.” (Pg. 12)
He explains, “The Nazarites were described as ‘red’ like ’earth,’ clearly a dark red, which came to approximate a ‘coal black’ as a result of famine. This is clearly a case of starvation-induced hyper-pigmentation… Other Old Testament figures like Job also complained of disease-induced hyper-pigmentation. David and Solomon were described as the same ‘red’ like ‘earth’ as the Nazarites.” (Pg. 15)
He points out, “There is a considerable amount of variety within a population… It is about trends and not absolutes. There are no absolute human populations. In zoology a race is a sub-group, within a species, whose defining characteristics are absolute. This is what sui meant by ‘there’s no such thing as race,’ a claim that, if misunderstood, has the potential to cause more confusion than it clears up. It is not intended to prevent us from learning about the physical appearance of skeletal individuals and populations.” (Pg. 18)
He observes, “In cases where a broad-nosed population meets a narrow-nosed population, in equal amounts, the offspring are dominantly intermediate in nasal breadth… no one could sincerely argue that the Tutsi, with African hair and complexion, look like the result of equal intermixing between Eurasians and Sub-Saharan Africans.” (Pg. 40) He continues, “There is less difference between the average of these two populations than in the ranges within the population. Once, again, this is any it is said ‘there is no such thing as race.’ Human populations are not absolute even in their noses, which are seen as a central characteristic of ‘race.’” (Pg. 41)
He recounts, “Of 22 Hellenistic period Judean skulls 18.2% had a ‘marked’ nasal spine, a trait which has a high frequency amongst Europeans. 18.2% also had ‘none-small’ nasal spine, a trait which has a high frequency amongst Sub-Saharan Africans. A ‘medium’ nasal spine was found in 63.6% of the sample. The equal proportion of what might be called typically Caucasian and typically Negroid nasal morphology, alongside a form between the two extremes, suggests a population of Afro-European descent in roughly equal measure.” (Pg. 48)
Of ‘nasal sill’ shape, he notes, “The Judeans seem more European in this respect but along with the high frequency of Form 3. In the combined total of Form 1 and 2 the Judeans seem more like the ‘Negro’ than any other population in the table. This occurrence of the forms amongst Judeans suggests a much stronger Euro-type affinity but could also be interpreted as supporting a mixed population with stronger Euro-type component.” (Pg. 52)
Of skulls, he explains, “For Caucasians we have been told the coronal suture is most complex while the others are relatively simpler. For Sub-Saharan Africans the lambdoidal suture is most complex while the others are relatively simpler. We are also warned about considerable variation within geographic groups, something we have seen across every trait for which we have had the necessary data. It is the mean or average for a sample that can be used to suggest ancestry.” (Pg. 61) He continues, “If we had to make a decision based solely on this the dominant ‘simple’ pattern in the coronal suture would APPEAR to make ‘Caucasian’ identity unlikely. We would have a choice between Sub-Saharan Africans and East Asians… Thankfully we do not have to make a decision based only on this trait. We have other data.” (Pg. 62) l
Later, he adds, “The sutural complexity of Judean skulls suggests an affinity with Sub-Saharan Africans…. The supraorbital foramen frequency suggests Sub-Saharan African affinity.” (Pg. 71)
He cautions, “We should remember that Saharan-type Africans are not a different ‘race’ from Sub-Saharan Africans. The traits that they have also occur in Sub-Saharans but in lower frequencies. The former originate from the latter and both have heavily pigmented skins.” (Pg. 76)
He points out, “We should always bear some things in mind when looking at a reconstruction [based on skeletons]: 1) The complexion and hair are given at the discretion of the instructor. 2) The degree of broadness of the nose and thickness of the lips are influenced by the reconstrutor’s perception of the geographical grouping to which the skeleton belonged. Reconstruction guidelines for the noses of skulls designated ‘Negroid’ are a few millimetres more than for those designated ‘Caucasoid.’ As a result of this … it will receive a narrower reconstructed nose if they think it belonged to a White person than if they think the owner was Black … In short, the preconceptions of the recontructor will dominate the appearance of the reconstruction. Did they use ‘Caucasoid’ or ‘Negroid’ reconstructing guidelines?” (Pg. 81)
He concludes, “Geographically Israel is located on the doorstep of Africa so African affinity should really come as no surprise, even though for many it almost certainly does. The maximum skill breadth… and nasal indices all strongly suggest an Afro-Euro-type population with a dominant Afro-type component… The Judeans of the Hellenistic period were an equal blend of Afro- and Euro-type… The forensic evidence is proof of the assertion made in Volume 1 that the Biblical Old Testament Hebrews were Black and progressively became mixed from the transition of the Old Testament period to the Roman period.” (Pg. 86-87)
This book will be “must reading” for those interested in the ethnicity of the people of the Bible.