In his monumental work, Das Kapital, Karl Marx (1818-1883) tried to show that capitalism was both inefficient and immoral. His key to explaining capitalism is his labor theory of value, which he developed from ideas of Adam Smith and David Ricardo.
"Should Rename As Das Kapital Cliffnotes Unabridged"
John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) was without question the most influential economist of the twentieth century. His most important work, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, was published in 1936, and it was widely perceived as offering plausible explanations and solutions for the Great Depression.<
"The Basis of Current Policy"
Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) and Friedrich Hayek (1899-1992) were perhaps the foremost defenders of the free market and limited government during the mid-twentieth century ascendancy of Keynesian economics.
"Keep it simple"
Benjamin Graham developed "value investing", a style adopted by Warren Buffett, one of history's most successful investors. It is based on "fundamental analysis", which quantitatively compares a company's stock price to various measures of financial strength and promise. "Growth investing" is a fundamentally different style that seeks to identify tomorrow's great business successes. Learn the ins and outs, and the pros and cons, of these basic investment styles.
"Lots of information in a quick read/listen"
Financial markets have an impressive history of gains and progress for prudent and judicious investors. But these advances are often interrupted by powerful and sudden setbacks or forward lurches.
The classical economists pioneered a new way of thinking about the uniquely human tendency to produce, trade, consume, and accumulate. Adam Smith (1723-1790) explained how the division of labor expands productive power and argued for freedom in economic affairs. David Ricardo (1772-1823), a London stockbroker, developed the concept of diminishing returns, the wages-fund doctrine, and classical rent theory.
Any good financial plan must address how to preserve what you earn. Though tax law and inheritance laws constantly change, this presentation will give you a clear "big picture" on the basic pitfalls and opportunities in this potentially complicated (yet vital) area of financial planning.
"tax history book"
Since World War II, economists have struggled to understand the Keynesian Revolution and to apply its lessons to the modern economy. The heart of the debate over Keynes' radical ideas has been whether they could or should be reconciled with the older, neoclassical economic theory.
"Clear but painfully short description of Keynes..."
For centuries, gold has been considered a safe haven; it is tangible, unlike an account balance, and its value is relatively stable, especially as a hedge against inflation. To what degree should investors seek security in gold, or in other kinds of hard money? In the second part of this presentation we discuss the financial writers and gurus whose analysis and comments reflect, and sometimes influence, the world of finance and economics.
"Gold part excellent!!!"
Dr. Arjo Klamer: Monetarism emerged in the 1960's under the leadership of Milton Friedman, who received the Nobel Prize in 1976. Friedman taught at the University of Chicago during this period, developing monetarism as a branch of Frank Knight's famous "Chicago School" of economics. Monetarists emphasize the role of money and the government's monetary policy in economic affairs; they vigorously defend the free market in their work.
"Author did not take sides as what works."
Frank Knight (1885-1972) fathered the famous Chicago School of Economics, whose members are among the most decorated in history. An abstract theorist, Knight emphasized the role of risk and uncertainty in economic affairs, and was philosophically concerned with such topics as means vs. ends, economics as a study of human nature, and human communication.
"I'm left fuzzy on what Knight's ideas were"
Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950) viewed capitalism as a dynamic engine of progress. In his view, mature economic systems find a regular and stable routine of supply, demand, and exchange; Schumpeter called this the "circular flow". Entrepreneurs interrupt this circular flow with new ideas and visions about the economic future, recombining existing resources to create new and more valuable products and services.
"great narration, too tough to understand"
Beginning in the early 1840's, a group of German university professors denounced the abstract theories of classical economists, rejecting theoretical analysis in favor of a historical approach. They believed that theories only express what happens in a simplified world, not in the real world, and that they offer little solution to the pressing social problems of the underprivileged.
Jean Paul Getty and John Templeton are great examples of "bargain hunters" or "contrarians" who seek to find promising stocks that are out of favor or fashion: and therefore undervalued. Slightly different are those who study cycles and waves to determine regular and (hopefully) predictable patterns of favor and disfavor in the market.
In America's financial nerve center, fortunes are made, and sometimes lost. J.P. Morgan, Jay Gould, Hetty Green, Jim Brady, Jesse Livermore, Bernard Baruch, Joseph Kennedy, and many others have made "the street" what it is today. Learn about the techniques, principles, and innovations that have shaped the market, and sharpen your ability to interpret today's market in a broad historical context.
Most investors do not get involved in speculation or commodities, but speculators play a vital function in financial markets by absorbing and managing risk. Technical traders practically ignore business results within specific companies, instead focusing on broad market indicators such as price trends, trading volume, and rate of change in major stock market averages.
Public confidence in financial markets depends on the perception that they are fair and just, not distorted or manipulated to the advantage of particular traders. This is the story of those who have sought illicit advantages, and how markets and investors can protect themselves against the dark side of human nature.
"Worth the price of a drink at Starbucks"
Carl Menger (1840-1921) and Eugen von Bohm-Bawerk (1851-1914), working in Vienna in the late nineteenth century, rejected the classical and Marxian ideas that value can be measured objectively. They insisted that the subjective preferences of consumers determine value; this shifted the attention of economic analysis from productive power to consumer demand.
"An OK Summary"
As the world becomes more economically and culturally integrated, there are vast opportunities for growth, especially as less prosperous countries seize the opportunities of capitalism and the market economy. Hear the success stories and pitfalls, the strategies and secrets, of the world's great international investors.
Leon Walras (1834-1910) transformed economics from a literary discipline into a mathematical, deterministic science. For the first time, Walras expressed rigorously the view that all markets are related, and that their relationships can be described and analyzed mathematically.