On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered what remained of his Confederate Army. But what had the North won? The United States of America was now one nation, but that nation was crippled by the economic costs of war: wholesale destruction, inflation, and poverty. The political costs were no less. Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated and Southern leaders were in jail. Northern politicians now began to "reconstruct" the South, to build state governments that would be loyal to the union.
On May 13, 1846, the United States Congress declared war on Mexico. Although the Mexican-American War lasted only 18 months, its consequences were profound. Mexico lost nearly half of its territory to the United States: Texas, California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado. Some historians have described this conflict as America's first step toward empire.
"George C Scott is great"
From 1861 to 1865 America was caught in the convulsions of war, the Civil War. No historical event, short of the American Revolution itself, has so deeply affected the United States. The central question involved the nature of the union. Was the United States one nation, or were the United States a group of sovereign states that could choose to disassociate?
The Constitution of the United States created a nation with a strong centralized government. In 1791, the Constitution was adjusted to include 10 amendments, commonly referred to as the Bill of Rights. These were guarantees of individual liberty upon which critics of the Constitution had insisted. Changing times raise changing questions. What of black rights, the right of former slaves to vote? And do women not share in that privilege? How many terms should a president serve? These and other issues were resolved through additional amendments to the Constitution.
The United States emerged from the American Revolution still engaged in old world politics. In particular, America faced all the trade restrictions of the British Navigation Acts. As a result, The United States declared war on Great Britain in 1812, and proceeded to invade Canada, one of Britain's possessions, an invasion which failed. At a cost of $80 million in national debt and of a single party assuming almost unchallenged power, the War of 1812 has been called "America's most unpopular war".
"An interesting listen"
This volume is a two-part history of the Civil War. Part I. From 1861 to 1865 America was caught in the convulsions of war—the Civil War. No historical event, short of the American Revolution itself, has so deeply affected the United States. The Civil War is often called the War between the States by Southern historians, aptly illustrating the political question underpinning the war: Was the United States one nation, or were the United States a group of sovereign entities that could choose to disassociate? Both sides honored the same constitution, spoke the same language, and worshipped the same God. But the two could not agree on whether America was a union or a compact of states.