The Critique of Pure Reason is a work that examines the faculty of reason and the qualities inherent in human thought. Before this time the influence of the knower on that which was sought to be known was not considered in a thorough and developed manner. Kant attempted with this critique to establish a limit to the knowable based on the nature of human cognition. His work was an attempt to address the failings in philosophy and metaphysics and provide a solid foundation for the proper use of reason to expand knowledge.
"Reason is a wonderful thing to read about"
Immanuel Kant's Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, first published in 1785, lays out Kant's essential philosophy and defines the concepts and arguments that would shape his later work. Central to Kant's doctrine is the categorical imperative, which he defines as a mandate that human actions should always conform to a universal, unchanging standard of rational morality.
"A Pivotal Thinker in the History of Mind"
Ancient Greek philosophy was divided into three sciences: physics, ethics, and logic. This division is perfectly suitable to the nature of the thing, and the only improvement that can be made in it is to add the principle on which it is based, so that we may both satisfy ourselves of its completeness, and also be able to determine correctly the necessary subdivisions.
This seminal text in the history of moral philosophy elaborates the basic themes of Kant's moral theory, gives the most complete statement of his highly original theory of freedom of the will, and develops his practical metaphysics. This new edition, prepared by an acclaimed translator and scholar of Kant's practical philosophy, presents the first new translation of the work to appear for many years, together with a substantial and lucid introduction.
"WTF. . .AGAIN"
Kant published this work in 1795, during the aftermath of the American Revolution and the French Revolution. The high hopes of the European Enlightenment had been dampened by the Reign of Terror in which tens of thousands of people died, and the perpetual cycle of war and temporary armistice seemed to be inescapable. Kant's essay is best known as an early articulation of the idea of a league of nations that could bring an end to all hostilities. Today, the United Nations continues to pursue that dream, but lasting peace still seems to be wishful thinking.
A state is not to be regarded as a property or patrimony, like the soil on which it may be settled. It is a society of men, over which no one but itself has the right to rule or to dispone. Like the stem of a tree it has its own root, and to incorporate it as a graft in another state, is to destroy its existence as a moral person; it is to reduce it to a thing, and thereby to contradict the idea of the original compact without which a right over a people is inconceivable.
Immanuel Kant is one of the most important figures of German philosophy. He is said to have affected a Copernican revolution in philosophy, akin to Copernicus' reversal of the age-old belief that the sun revolved around the earth, through his ground-breaking work on the structure of experience. He argued that human experience couldn't be not affected by the features of our minds; the consequence is that we can only experience a phenomenal world, as conveyed by our senses, and never the reality itself, which nobody has ever seen. He published important treatises on ethics, religion, law, aesthetics, and history.
"Aufklärung ist der Ausgang des Menschen aus seiner selbstverschuldeten Unmündigkeit", ist Kants berühmte Antwort, die der bedeutendste deutsche Aufklärer mit anschaulichen Worten untermauert...
Der Philosoph Immanuel Kant legt in dieser Abhandlung von 1786 dar, wie sich die Vernunft logisch orientieren kann...
Immanuel Kant est une figure incontournable de la philosophie allemande. On lui doit une compréhension absolument nouvelle de la façon dont l'esprit façonne l'expérience. Kant constate qu'on ne peut jamais percevoir que des phénomènes, c'est-à-dire des perceptions déterminées par nos sens et nos structures mentales, et jamais la chose objective, l'événement en soi ; à partir de là, il s'attache à décrire les structures de l'esprit à l'origine de nos perceptions.
"Aufklärung ist der Ausgang des Menschen aus seiner selbstverschuldeten Unmündigkeit. Unmündigkeit
ist das Unvermögen sich seines Verstandes ohne Leitung eines anderen zu bedienen..."