Jamestown is fondly remembered today for being the first permanent English settlement in the colonies, but it was not fondly remembered by those who lived and died there. The English quickly learned it would be difficult to establish a permanent settlement because of the poor weather, the swampy terrain, the hostile natives living nearby, and the general inexperience and ineptitude of the English settlers.
Discover the golden age of sixteenth-century England and its fascinating monarch. Elizabeth the 1st was perhaps the most influential sovereign England has ever known. Her father, Henry VIII, brutally murdered her mother and declared her a bastard; as he kept taking and discarding wives, Elizabeth had to build intelligence and presence to stay alive in the intrigue-laden Tudor court. When she at last ascended the throne, it was to inherit a bankrupt, famished, and powerless country.
Nearly 20 years before Jamestown was settled, the English established one of the earliest colonies in North America. Like other early settlements, Roanoke struggled to survive in its infancy. The colony's leader, John White, sailed back to England in 1587 to bring more supplies and help. What White found when he came back to Roanoke led to one of the most enduring mysteries in American history. Despite the fact he left over 100 people in Roanoke in 1587, White returned to literally nothing, with all traces of the settlement gone and no evidence of fighting.
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