"A Martian Odyssey" by Stanley G. Weinbaum first appeared in 1934. It was Weinbaum's first published story, and remains his best known. It's publication immediately established Weinbaum as a leading figure in the field. One of the aliens in the story, "Tweel", remains one of the most recognised aliens in early science fiction, and is said to be an inspiration for aliens in the works of Isaac Asimov and Arthur C. Clarke.
"Original, creative story writing"
On the first manned Martian exploratory mission, Jarvis' scout ship crashes in a vast meteor crater near the Ares Vallis. He must endure a perilous journey back to the mothership on foot, and on the way encounters several life forms with Tweel, his new-found Martian companion.
"The Martian' and What Our Fictional Space Odysseys Tell Us About Earth" is from the October 22, 2015 Ideas and Controversy section of The Washington Post. It was written by Alyssa Rosenberg and narrated by Sam Scholl.