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Byliny | [Dmytro Strelbytskyy]

Byliny

Byilinyi - eto epicheskie pesni o russkih bogatyiryah. Pervyie byilinyi poyavilis v H veke, a uzhe k XIV - XV vekah Moskva sdelalas sobiratelnitsey russkogo eposa. Naibolshee kolichestvo doshedshih do nas byilin datiruetsya XI-XIV vv. Oni sozdavalis v yuzhnorusskih oblastyah - Kievskoy, Chernigovskoy, Galitsko-Volyinskoy, Rostovo-Suzdalskoy.
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Publisher's Summary

Byilinyi - eto epicheskie pesni o russkih bogatyiryah. Pervyie byilinyi poyavilis v H veke, a uzhe k XIV - XV vekah Moskva sdelalas sobiratelnitsey russkogo eposa. Naibolshee kolichestvo doshedshih do nas byilin datiruetsya XI-XIV vv. Oni sozdavalis v yuzhnorusskih oblastyah - Kievskoy, Chernigovskoy, Galitsko-Volyinskoy, Rostovo-Suzdalskoy.

Termin "byilinyi" ne narodnogo, a literaturnogo proishozhdeniya. V narode eti pesni nazyivalis "starinyi" ili "starinushki", svidetelstvuya o svoey drevnosti i prityazanii na dostovernost. A "byilinami" ih vpervyie nazval I.P. Saharov v svoih nauchnyih "Skazaniyah russkogo naroda o semeynoy zhizni svoih predkov", nazvav tak razdel s perepechatkoy epicheskih pesen.

Deystvitelnost i vyimyisel v byilinah otnyud ne razgranichenyi, naryadu s yavnyimi fantaziyami delaem vyivodyi o zhizni Drevney Rusi. Za mnogimi byilinnyimi epizodami mozhno ugadat realnyie sotsialnyie i byitovyie otnosheniya, mnogochislennyie voennyie i obschestvennyie konfliktyi. V byilinah udivitelno tochno peredanyi detali byita, a zachastuyu sovershenno verno opisana mestnost, gde razvorachivaetsya deystvie.

Glavnyimi personazhami byilin yavlyayutsya bogatyiri. Oni voploschayut ideal muzhestvennogo, predannogo rodine i narodu cheloveka. Geroy vsegda srazhaetsya v odinochku protiv vrazheskih sil. No politika v byilinah propagandiruetsya oboronitelnaya, a ne nastupatelnaya.

Pervyie byilinyi byili slozhenyi esche do Krescheniya Rusi i harakterizovalis slabyim razvitiem istoricheskogo soderzhaniya i hronologicheskoy neopredelennostyu vremeni deystviya. Eto tak nazyivaemyie byilinyi o «starshih» bogatyiryah, svyazannyie s mifologiey. Geroi etih proizvedeniy - Svyatogor i Volhv Vseslavevich, Dunay i Mihaylo Potyik - yavlyayutsya olitsetvoreniem nepoznannyih sil prirodyi. Vo vtoroy period svoey istorii na smenu drevneyshim bogatyiryam prishli geroi novogo vremeni - Ilya Muromets, Dobryinya Nikitich, Alesha Popovich. Eto bogatyiri tak nazyivaemogo kievskogo tsikla. V Kiev bogatyiri edut na sluzhbu knyazyu Vladimiru, ego zhe oni zaschischayut ot vragov. Soderzhanie etih byilin nosit preimuschestvenno geroicheskiy, voinskiy harakter. Proishodit ob'edinenie byilinnyih obrazov i syuzhetov vokrug otdelnyih personazhey i mest deystviya. Tsentralnoy figuroy etogo tsikla, da i vsego russkogo eposa, stal Ilya Muromets. Esli prinimat vo vnimanie, chto byilinnyih syuzhetov naschityivaetsya okolo 90 (estestvenno, s beschislennyimi ih variantami), to Ile Muromtsu posvyascheno bolee desyatka iz nih. Ilya Muromets vo vseh byilinah - starik s sedoy borodoy. I izvesten on tem, chto sidel bolnoy na pechi 30 let i tri goda. No prishedshie v dom stranniki izlechili ego ot bolezni, i stal on sluzhit gorodu Kievu i knyazyu Vladimiru. Samyiy izvestnyiy syuzhet - o pobede nad Solovem-razboynikom.Alesha Popovich - syin popa, on samyiy molodoy iz troitsyi bogatyirey. Smelyiy, hitryiy, legkomyislennyiy, veselchak i balagur. Samyiy izvestnyiy ego podvig - ego pobeda nad Tugarinom Zmeem. Esche odnim krupnyim tsentrom drevnerusskogo gosudarstva byil Novgorod. Byilinyi novgorodskogo tsikla - byitovyie, novellisticheskie. Geroyami etih byilin byili kuptsyi, knyazya, krestyane, guslyaryi - Sadko, Volga, Mikula, Vasiliy Buslaev, Blud Hotenovich. Samyiy znamenityiy geroy byilin novgorodskogo tsikla - Sadko. Byilina o Sadko - edinstvennaya v russkom epose, gde geroy otpravlyaetsya v potustoronniy mir (podvodnoe tsarstvo) i zhenitsya na potustoronnem suschestve. Eta epicheskaya pesn sostoit iz treh otnositelno samostoyatelnyih chastey. V pervoy guslyar Sadko, porazivshiy masterstvom igryi morskogo tsarya, poluchaet ot nego sovet, kak razbogatet, i stanovitsya bogatyim kuptsom. V sleduyuschey chasti Sadko betsya ob zaklad s novgorodskimi kuptsami, chto smozhet kupit vse tovaryi Novgoroda, i v rezultate pokidaet gorod iz-za neterpimogo otnosheniya k nemu kuptsov. V posledney pesne rasskazyivaetsya o puteshestvii Sadko po moryu, vo vremya kotorogo morskoy tsar predlagaet emu zhenitbu na sobstvennoy docheri i zhizn v podvodnom tsarstve. No Sadko vozvraschaetsya k svoey "zemnoy" zhene.

Vsego sobrano i zapisano okolo dvuh tyisyach etih epicheskih pesen. Seychas vstretit ih v zhivom ispolnenii pochti nevozmozhno, no interes k byilinam ne ugasaet i po sey den.

Please note: This audiobook is in Russian.

Public Domain (P)2010 Dmytro Strelbytskyy

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