This is the third volume of William Manchester's biography of Winston Churchill. I first read the second volume, about the decade leading up to the German invasion of France, 25 years ago and thought it was so good that I bought and read the first volume. I had, by now, given up hope of ever seeing the third volume, but Mr. Manchester appears to have asked Paul Reid to complete the book and, when I saw it available on Audible, I immediately bought it.
This book is billed as a biography (and so it is) but Winston Churchill’s life was so intertwined with the British participation in World War II (he served as both Prime Minister and Defense Minister) that this book also serves as a political (not military) history of British involvement in the war as seen through British eyes. There is little military coverage per se but the political decisions behind the military moves are discussed in great detail. While this book covers the period from 1940 through 1965 (beginning where the second volume ended) it is primarily concerned with Churchill’s actions during the war with approximately 90% of the book covering the period up to the end of the war in Europe and his loss of the office of Prime Minister.
The book’s description of the political views of the Allies, its descriptions of the leaders and their conferences is really first rate. Mr. Reid has added liberal excerpts from the diaries of many of those involved, both Allied and Axis, and the resulting picture of how the war progressed, how the decisions that had to be made were reached and how the various participants reacted to the decisions transcends anything I have read before. I have read many histories of World War II, but all of them spent a great deal of time covering the battles whereas this book dwells primarily on the political decisions to be made and how and why the decisions were reached. The portraits of some of the leaders presented in this book are the best I have seen outside of biographies of those people themselves. The picture of Joseph Stalin, as presented in this book, is very different from that presented in other books, presumably because it is the view of him as seen by Churchill and his aides, not as seen by Soviet Marshalls or allied diplomats and one is drawn to the assumption that Stalin, like all of the other leaders, could present many different faces as needed. Similarly the portraits of people like Harry Hopkins, Cordell Hull, Anthony Eden, Alan Brooke, John Dill and others presented in this book seem much richer than I have seen in other books.
One of the books on my wish list was Max Hastings’ book “Winston’s War”, but this book is so well done and covers Mr. Churchill’s wartime involvement so well that I am not sure there is anything in Mr. Hastings’ book that would contribute much new and I am now uncertain as to whether or not it is worth buying. I thought I knew the events of the war from my earlier readings, but after reading this book I realized that there was much that either I did not know or which I understood imperfectly. While I do not wish to spoil this book for others I can say that I did not know how fragile the Allied coalition was at times during the war or how much disagreement there was between the British and the US on strategy. Yes, I knew that the US favored a cross-channel invasion and the British wanted to pursue a Mediterranean strategy but I did not know how strong the disagreements were, how dedicated some of the military and political professionals were to one choice or the other or how the final agreements were reached. This book is a treasure trove of information about how and why the political decisions were reached and I recommend it without hesitation to anyone interested in knowing the background behind these decisions. It is one of the finest books on the war that I have ever read.
The last 10% (or so) of the book covers Churchill’s life after he lost of the office of Prime Minister and after the end of the war. It covers, in considerable detail, his work in opposition to the Labor Party and his efforts to create a “United States of Europe”. While I understood how he, almost alone, understood the coming Nazi menace I was not aware of how he continued to predict the course of political events after the war. His foresight in seeing the coming cold war between the West and the Soviets and his efforts to preserve freedom and security during the late 1940s and early 1950s was new to me. It is also a very personal book and, at the end, I had tears in my eyes at the passing of such a great man.
The book is read wonderfully by Clive Chafer who does a passable impression of both Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt. One reviewer complained that the book is read by an American, but that is only true of the introduction, which is read by the author. The rest of the book is a pleasure to listen to. This is a worthy conclusion to the monumental first two volumes of this trilogy and I cannot recommend it highly enough.
I am not the target audience for this book. Evans says, in the preface, that his target are those who know little or nothing of this period and I have been reading about the lead-up to World War II for most of my adult life starting with Shirer's The Rise And Fall of the Third Reich (a book Evans does not think much of).
I had not expected to learn very much new, but found how wrong I was about that. The first 1/3 of the book involves the period from the start of the Bismarck period through the end of World War I and does not involve any of the familiar names (Hitler, Goering, Gobbles, Hess, Himmler, etc). It does give the background that provided the fertile ground that allowed the Nazi movement to find purchase. In doing so the author shows that the Nazi beliefs in anti-Semitism, anti-Marxism, anti-socialism, their disdain for democracy, their belief in pan-Germanism and their desire to find extra living space in the East were not new to German culture or beliefs, but had been around for a long time. And this foundation does much to explain the speed with which the Nazi movement gained ground and grew. The remainder of this volume deals with the Nazis themselves, their allies, their opponents, their climb to power and the individuals involved.
I have only two complaints about this book. The first concerns the author's decision to make no moral judgments about the morality of the Nazi actions. While I understand the desire to create a history that deals with facts rather than emotions, this decision seems to me to often ignore how basically evil the events being described were. The second complaint is with the uninspired reading by Sean Pratt. Most of the reading is monotone and, even more annoying, his reading contains pauses in the middle of sentences which have no contextual meaning and serve only to break-up the logical flow of thought.
But these are minor concerns. I am waiting for Audible to add the next volume of this history.
Hitlerland is a collection of individual recollections and anecdotes about the period from 1930 through the start of US involvement in World War 2. While it is full of interesting information, and contains much that I never knew before about the period, it is worth mentioning that it is not a serious history of the period. Rather it centers on the observations of various observers, mostly reporters, about events during the period and how they reported the rise of the Nazis.
It is thoroughly enjoyable and I found myself reluctant to stop listening, but in the end left me feeling that there was not much real history in the book. If you would like an interesting "gossip" piece about the period, this is your book. If you are looking for something serious, you might want to look elsewhere.
I gave it 4 stars because I was expecting something "meatier" than this, but I would stress that it is very interesting and Robert Fass' reading is first class. I am not sure that the classification "light book" can be reasonably applied to anything written about this terrible period of history, but if it can, then this book is qualifies and is first class. I do not mean to suggest that this book treats the period lightly, but only that it is not a period history like Richard J Evans' The Third Reich In Power.
The tragic story of Juana would be reason enough to read this book. However, there is so much gained in taking a second look at Catherine of Aragon. Juana is unfortunately remembered as Juana the Mad, but this book examines the evidence and casts doubts on the accuracy of the sobriquet. When she inherited the kingdom of Castile on her mother's death, she ended up at the mercy of men competing to rule it- her husband, her father, and eventually her son Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Not in dispute is her legacy of numerous offspring that married into many royal houses.
Catherine of Aragon faced many difficult times. She left Spain to marry Prince Arthur of England. After Arthur died, she faced years of uncertainty and financial hardship while her father-in-law and father remained in a bitter money dispute over her dowry. Her life brightened when Arthur's brother Henry VIII ascended to the throne and immediately married her only to later leave her when his head was turned by Anne Boleyn.
The book is very good at going into details on the case presented to the church by both sides. Henry is very upset that Catherine couldn't provide him with a son (that lived) and blames this misfortune on marrying his brother's wife (degree of affinity) even though the church granted a dispensation for Catherine and Henry's marriage. One of the weaknesses of this argument that is prominently pointed out in the book is that since Henry's former mistress Mary is Anne's sister, marrying Anne would be violating the same degree of affinity. Anne Boleyn's role (and that of her grasping family) in assisting Henry's side is also detailed in the book.
Catherine is presented as a counselor to Henry during the beginning of his reign. When her crafty father Ferdinand would try to better his own prospects at the expense of Henry and England, Catherine would stand behind Henry and her adopted country. Her intelligence and determination is best shown in her tenacity fighting for her marriage and enlisting the help of Juana's son Charles V to repeatedly pressure the Pope. The book brings out Catherine's concern on how adversely an annulment will affect the future of her daughter Mary. Not only did it affect her prospects as an heir, it also severely affected her marriage choices. Catherine, brought up by the "Catholic monarchs" Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand, also despaired at the rise of Protestantism in England and worried about the effect of the broken marriage as well as Anne and her beliefs would have on the country. The book brings out that the unfortunate result of Catherine's struggle to keep her marriage would end up weakening the Catholic church in England by forcing Henry to leave the church to get his much desired marriage to Anne. She also had to endure Henry's punishment of isolating her from her beloved daughter.
The book provides a good look at the children of Ferdinand and Isabella and their influence on the world at the time. The good qualities of Juana have been hidden underneath an accusation of insanity, made by the people who profited the most by her removal from the scene. Catherine of Aragon is more than just a bitter, overly religious first wife- she is an educated woman concerned about the future of her daughter, her country, and her husband.
I discovered this book because I had bought another book George, Nicholas, and Wilhem that was also narrated by Roslyn Landor. I enjoyed the book and her performance and was interested in her other books.